Changes in the supervision of the hottest printing

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Changes in the supervision of the printing industry in the past 30 years

looking back at the time node of 30 years, we may be surprised that the reform and opening up can inject so much vitality and vigor into an industry. When casually picking up a printed in China book at the international book fair, it is hard to imagine that China's printing industry 30 years ago was a backward industry that could not even meet domestic demand. In the past 30 years, China's printing industry, like the whole Chinese national economy, has burst out amazing energy, and China has become a printing power in the world. Reform and opening up is the driving force for the development of China's printing industry. Behind the great achievements, it is not difficult for us to see that the two remarkable characteristics of the supervision of the printing industry, which are increasingly adapted to the requirements of the development of market economy, and more standardized, institutionalized and open management, are the indispensable conditions for the continuous development of China's printing industry

the era of shortage and regulatory vacuum

in the eyes of many printing enterprises, the 1980s were a missed golden age. Two popular words at that time, if you want to issue them, printing machines are money printing machines, which fully illustrates the great attraction of the printing industry at that time. Many printers who have experienced that era still enjoy talking about it: at that time, it was the publishing house that asked the printing house for cash to print books, but they still couldn't line up

but it was the best time and the worst time. The golden age in the eyes of printing enterprises is actually based on the extremely backward technical conditions and serious lack of production capacity of the whole printing industry. After the reform and opening up, the long suppressed cultural demand of the society suddenly erupted, and the demand for spiritual and cultural products such as books, newspapers and periodicals increased rapidly. People put forward new requirements for packaging and decoration printing of goods. However, the printing industry, which has been stagnant or even declining for a long time, cannot cope with this rapid growth demand at all. Printing books is difficult to become a bottleneck restricting the development of the publishing industry. If the experiment fails due to unskilled human operation, the printing cycle of books and periodicals is often three to five months, or even longer, and many magazines have become expired products

in an era when all industries are waiting to flourish, development is bound to be the primary issue of the printing industry. In the face of the prominent problems of difficult publishing and printing, the decision on strengthening publishing work issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council in June 1983 clearly pointed out: actively develop the printing industry, and effectively change the situation of poor management, outdated equipment, extremely backward technology and insufficient production capacity of books and periodicals printing. From today's perspective, under the background of the reform and opening up just breaking the topic at that time, the idea of developing the printing industry proposed in the decision obviously still has a strong color of planned economy, and the supervision of market nature is still blank at this time. The "decision" proposes to carry out technological transformation and institutional reform of the printing industry in a planned way, and clearly requires the relevant ministries and commissions of the Central Committee, the State Council and Beijing Municipality to carry out technological transformation of the affiliated book printing plants, bring the technical equipment and equipment for book printing into the national planned production and supply channels, and even specifically puts forward specific requirements for the construction of a typesetting plant

the power of planned economy is still strong, but market awareness has sprouted in the tide of reform and opening up. At the forefront of reform and opening up in Shenzhen, overseas investment has quietly emerged in the printing industry: in 1979, the first printing enterprise, Shenzhen printing products factory, was established. Around 1983, a number of foreign-invested printing enterprises, such as jianian, Tianming art, Yuehai Xuri, Meguiar, etc., were successively established. In Longgang, Qianku and Jinxiang, small towns in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province, the figure of private printing enterprises began to appear: around 1981, some brave farmers, relying on simple business intuition, resolutely joined the printing industry and inadvertently became the first batch of private printing entrepreneurs in New China

in such a period when the printing industry began to take off, in addition to the management of printing enterprises in the planned economic system, the market-based supervision of the printing industry is still completely in a vacuum. The government has not set qualification conditions for the printing industry, there is no approval process, and there are basically no specific regulatory measures facing the market. A loose and almost unlimited external development environment has provided a stage for the explosive development of China's printing industry, which is in an extremely backward state. Therefore, a number of private and foreign-invested enterprises with insufficient capital and technical strength can quietly survive, develop and grow on the edge of the planned economic system

1988, the development trend of the first year of supervision is gratifying, but the problems caused by blind development have also been slowly accumulating. Inspired by the slogan of "want to publish, engage in printing", the number of printing enterprises in China expanded rapidly in the first few years of the 1980s. After the printing demand gap was quickly filled, the profit space of the whole industry was gradually declining. At this time, although market economy was still an unfamiliar term for most Chinese at that time, the main body of the printing market had undergone earth shaking changes: the state-owned printing plants within the planned economic system had felt a strong impact outside the system

In 1988, there were 17 foreign-funded printing enterprises in Shenzhen, and private printing workshops in Longgang have blossomed everywhere. However, the excess production capacity and the lack of standardized management of small and medium-sized printing enterprises have led some printing enterprises to start printing all kinds of reactionary, superstitious and obscene printed materials in pursuit of income, and piracy and theft have gradually become a large-scale activity. This has brought serious harm to the cultural security and economic order of the country. In this case, the supervision of the printing industry is on the agenda. In this year, the Interim Measures for the administration of the printing industry was issued. The release of the departmental rules formulated by five ministries and commissions including the publishing administration marks the official arrival of the era of supervision of China's printing industry

The interim measures with more than 3000 words were jointly formulated by the publication administration, the Ministry of public security, the State Administration for Industry and commerce, the Ministry of culture and the Ministry of light industry. Although the "Interim Measures" still need to be improved, some basic regulatory systems and principles established by it have continued to this day, constituting the main regulatory framework of China's printing industry

first of all, the interim measures determine the approval system principle for the access of printing enterprises. The Interim Measures stipulates that the establishment of printing enterprises must go through the examination and approval and registration procedures in accordance with the prescribed procedures. For printing enterprises that undertake to print books, newspapers and periodicals, the Interim Measures also specifically stipulates that they must obtain a license for the printing of books, newspapers and periodicals

secondly, the interim measures determine the principles of classified management. The "Interim Measures" divides the printed matter into three categories: books, newspapers and periodicals, packaging and decoration and other printed matter, and formulates printing management regulations respectively, so that the samples are subject to impact. Since then, the supervision of the printing industry has basically inherited this idea, only combining the printing of books, newspapers and periodicals as publication printing. On this basis, the classification standards of printing enterprises have evolved. Publication printing enterprises, packaging and decoration printing enterprises and other printing enterprises have become the official standards for the classification of printing enterprises in China

Third, the interim measures have established a system for supervising printing activities. Due to the particularity of printing products, the administrative departments have always attached great importance to the supervision of printing activities. The "Interim Measures" have formulated strict procedures and system requirements for printing enterprises to print books, newspapers and periodicals, packaging and decoration and other printed materials. For example, the registration certificate of newspapers and periodicals and the advertising business license of the entrusting party shall be verified respectively for the printing of newspapers and periodicals and advertising printed materials; The printing of confidential documents, certificates, tickets, etc. should be strictly confidential, the production process registration system should be improved, and the destruction of defective products should be done well

fourth, the interim measures have established a trinity of industrial supervision, public security management and industrial and commercial administration. As for the establishment of enterprises, the Interim Measures stipulates that printing enterprises must first be examined and approved by the publication administration department (or light industry administration department) and the public security organ before they can go through the industrial and commercial registration procedures with relevant documents. In the later management, this evolved into the requirement of two licenses and one license for printing enterprises. Legal printing enterprises must hold the printing operation license of the industry supervision department, the special industry license of the public security organ and the business license of the industrial and commercial administration department. In terms of daily supervision, the Interim Measures stipulates the specific contents of the three administrative departments' supervision of the printing industry from different perspectives. In the absence of such a concept as administrative punishment, the Interim Measures also stipulates the authority of reward and punishment of the three administrative departments

interestingly, as a management regulation, the Interim Measures also reflected some characteristics of the development of the printing industry in that era. For example, when defining the scope of application, the interim measures specifically stipulates that private printing enterprises should also follow these measures. This shows that although the strength of the private economy is still weak, it has found a place in the great reform of the planned economic system, and began to attract the attention of government departments. As for the mimeograph printing, transcribing business and the supervision of type sales involved in the interim measures, they have disappeared in the relevant laws and regulations in the future. That is because with the development of printing technology, they have been squeezed out of the line 3 experimental machine. The sliding parts, gears, pulleys and other high-efficiency, environmental friendly and high-precision intelligent products that are exposed in the exhibition should have protective equipment and real estate stages

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